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Focus Groups Guide

Part 9 Appendix Three: References

These sources were used as references for this guide and provide more information if you are interested in learning more about focus groups and local communities.

Molly de Aguiar and Josh Stearns, “Declaration of Dependence: Communities and News Organizations Working Together Will Transform Local Journalism. Here’s How,” Blog, Medium, April 27, 2015, Accessed December 20, 2016. Available at:

Robert M. Emerson, Rachel l. Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw, “Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes,” Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, December 5, 2011, Print.

Natalie Fenton, Monika Metykova, Justin Scholsberg, and Des Freedman, “Meeting the News Needs of Local Communities,” Report, Goldsmith Leverhulme Media Research Centre, 2010, Accessed December 20, 2016. Available at:

Tony Harcup, “Asking the Readers: Audience Research into Alternative Journalism,” Journalism Practice, August 11, 2015, pp. 680–696, Print.

Heikki Heikkilä, Laura Ahva, Jaana Siljamäki, and Sanna Valtonen, “The Mass, the Audience, and the Public: Questioning Preconceptions of News Audiences,” Public Media Management for the Twenty-First Century: Creativity, Innovation, and Interaction, Routledge, New York, September 26, 2013, pp. 161–179, Print.

Monique M. Hennink, “Focus Group Discussions: Understanding Qualitative Research,” Oxford University Press, New York, January 14, 2014, Print.

Damon Kiesow, “The Readers We Ignore and the News They Want,” Blog, Kiesow 8.0, June 29, 2015, Accessed December 20, 2016. Available at:

David R. Krathwohl, “Methods of Educational and Social Science Research: The Logic of Methods,” Waveland Press, Long Grove, IL, March 30, 2009, Print.

Angela M. Lee, “News Audiences Revisited: Theorizing the Link between Audience Motivations and News Consumption,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, September 6, 2013, pp. 300–317, Print.

Wiebke Loosen and Jan-Hinrik Schmidt, “(Re-)Discovering the Audience: The Relationship between Journalism and Audience in Networked Digital Media,” Information, Communication & Society, March 7, 2012, pp. 867–887, Print.

Peter Lunt and Sonia Livingstone, “Rethinking the Focus Group in Media and Communications Research,” Journal of Communication, June 1996, pp. 79–98, Print.

Kathleen McCollough, Jessica Crowell, and Philip M. Napoli, “Portrait of the Online Local News Audience,” Rutgers School of Communication and Information, November 2015, Accessed December 20, 2016. Available at:

David L. Morgan, “Focus Groups as Qualitative Research,” Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1988/1997, Print.

David L. Morgan, “Planning Focus Groups, Vol. 2,” The Focus Group Kit, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998, Print.

David L. Morgan and Richard A. Kruger, “The Focus Group Kit, Vol. 1-6,” Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998, Print.

David E. Morrison, “The Search for a Method: Focus Groups and the Development of Mass Communication Research,” University of Luton Press, Luton, UK, 1998, Print.

David W. Stewart, Prem N. Shamdasani, and Dennis W. Rock, “Focus Groups: Theory and Practice,” Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006, Print.

Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin, “Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques,” Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1990, Print.

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